Grands enjeux stratégiques contemporains - chaire en Sorbonne » Archives » Archives

Grands enjeux stratégiques contemporains - chaire en Sorbonne

Archives

PDF - 210.3 ko
Colloque conclusif
10 avril 2014
PDF - 45.6 ko
Calendrier complet
2013-2014

Conférence inaugurale - par sir Lawrence Freedman

lundi 20 janvier 2014
18h-20h

Amphithéâtre Richelieu
17 rue de la Sorbonne
75005 Paris
"Qu’est-ce que la stratégie ?"

JPEG - 23.8 ko
JPEG - 47.4 ko

présentation par sir Lawrence Freedman :

"This lecture will introduce the concept of strategy. It will describe the emergence of the contemporary concept as a consequence of both the Enlightenment, which encouraged the idea of making even war subject to a science, and the experience of the Napoleonic Wars. The focal point of strategy was the decisive battle, which would leave the enemy army so defeated that the enemy state could be subjugated. The lecture will discuss the problems with the decisive battle, including the possibility of continued resistance from reservists or militias, and the growing lethality of warfare. Nonetheless the idea of a decisive battle has exercised a continuing hold on military thought. The lecture will identify the problems for strategic thinking caused by the possibility of wars with ultimate weapons, and the experience of more limited and discretionary wars."

compte rendu


Conférence #2 - par Pierre Hassner

lundi 27 janvier 2014
18h-20h

Amphithéâtre Liard
17 rue de la Sorbonne
75005 Paris
"Guerres et politique au XXIe siècle"

JPEG - 36.7 ko

présentation par M. Hassner :

"La conférence « Guerres et politique au XXIe siècle » soulève quatre problématiques : celle des armes nucléaires, des interventions militaires et de la projection de forces qui ont dominé les dernières décennies, celle plus nouvelle de la guerre « hors-limites, non étatique et non militaire, enfin la problématique,hypothétique d’une nouvelle guerre mondiale à partir du Proche Orient ou de l’Extrême Orient. Une attention particulière sera portée à l’apparition des « bombes humaines » ou attentats-suicides, de la cyber-guerre et des drones."

compte rendu


Conférence #3 - par Béatrice Heuser

lundi 3 février 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"Technologie et stratégie dans la RMA"

PNG - 54.2 ko

présentation par Mme Heuser :

"Does technology drive strategy or do strategic requirements drive the development of technology ? This question has long agitated minds, not only since the debate about a Military Revolution in early modern history first began in the late 1950s. Subjects such as whether Europe would have dominated the world in the 19th century without its technological preponderance (J.M. Roberts) or whether the long peace in Europe since 1945 would have lasted without nuclear weapons will be debated."

compte rendu


Conférence #4 - par Louis Gautier

lundi 10 février 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"Le concept de dissuasion"

JPEG - 47.4 ko

présentation par M. Freedman :

"This lecture will pick up on the special problems posed by nuclear weapons for strategic thought. Although the concept of deterrence pre-dates nuclear weapons, and has relevance to many forms of conflict, the introduction of atomic bombs gave it meaning. It provided a rationale for nuclear holdings that was defensive in intent yet seemed to provide a strategic benefit in making war unthinkable. This was reinforced by the inability of the superpowers to develop a capacity for a decisive victory (first strike), thus leading to the concept of mutual assured destruction. Although nuclear deterrence has “worked” in a vital sense for almost 70 years the lecture will ask whether it can endure in the light of nuclear proliferation and wider developments in alliances and in conventional warfare."

compte rendu


Conférence #5 - par Pal Sidhu

lundi 17 février 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"La question nucléaire au XXIe siècle"

JPEG - 115.7 ko

présentation par M. Sidhu :

"Nuclear order in the 20th century was based on three crucial and interdependent pillars : first, the possession of nuclear weapons by major powers ; second, the construction of a bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral architecture to, on the one hand, manage relations between major powers and, on the other, to preserve the order by preventing the wider proliferation of nuclear weapons beyond them ; third, the establishment of informal regimes to buttress the formal institutional structures. This carefully crafted nuclear order has come under growing strain from both within and without and has led to nuclear disorder in the 21st century. What are the principal factors behind the present nuclear disorder and can it be redressed ? This lecture seeks to address these questions."

compte rendu


Conférence #6 - par Béatrice Heuser

lundi 24 février 2014
18h-20h

Amphithéâtre Louis
École Militaire
5 Place Joffre
75007 Paris
Plan
"The historical roots of nuclear strategy"

PNG - 54.2 ko

présentation par Mme Heuser :

"While nuclear weapons transformed interstate politics, nuclear strategies are not altogether new.
It is obvious that many precedents for arguments deployed in nuclear strategy can be found in air power thinking of the interwar period, but a possibly even larger debt is owed to naval strategies.
Theories of deterrence, for one, can be traced back to the 16th century writings of John Dee ;
the French posture of a third party on the margins of a bilateral confrontation can be seen as echoing the fleet in being arguments of Lord Torrington in the late 17th century. These and other examples will be examined in this survey which contextualises arguments mistakenly thought by many to be of very recent origins."

compte rendu


Conférence #7 - par Pal Sidhu

lundi 3 mars 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"Proliferation challenges in Asia"

JPEG - 115.7 ko

présentation par M. Sidhu :

"Asia – stretching from the east of Suez to the Pacific Ocean – is the locale of six states with nuclear weapon (China, DPRK, India, Israel, Pakistan, and Russia) and a state with potential nuclear weapon capabilities and, possibly, intentions (Iran). Asia is also the venue of the fastest qualitative and quantitative proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is also the region with the least institutional arrangements to manage relations between nuclear-armed states. These developments have a direct impact on not only strategic stability in the region but also on strategic stability at the global level. How exactly will the proliferation challenges in Asia threaten regional and global strategic stability and what can be done to address them ? This lecture will explore these questions."

compte rendu


Conférence #8 - par Pal Sidhu

lundi 10 mars 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"La vision stratégique de l’Inde pour le XXIe siècle"

JPEG - 115.7 ko

présentation par M. Sidhu :

"India – the world’s largest liberal democracy and rising power – has undergone three strategic shifts in the 21st century. First, it has moved from being a traditional military power to a nuclear-armed and growing economic powerhouse with development as its central focus. Second, it has transformed from a regional power to a global player with stakes in every existing and emerging global institution. Third, India has also shifted from its traditional policy of non-alignment to a more pragmatic policy of multi-alignment. Along with this India has also articulated the outlines of a radically new Panchsheel policy. What are the primary drivers behind India’s strategic vision for the 21st century and how does New Delhi plan to manifest this vision ? What impact will India’s strategic vision have on regional and global strategic stability ?"

compte rendu


Conférence #9 - par John Krige

lundi 17 mars 2014
18h-20h

Amphithéâtre Louis
École Militaire
5 Place Joffre
75007 Paris
Plan

"Supériorité technologique et politique extérieure américaine (US foreign policy and technological superiority) "

JPEG - 6.4 ko

présentation par M. Krige :

"L’Amérique émergea de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale comme la plus grande puissance scientifique et technologique au monde. Alors que la Guerre Froide se mettait en place, le gouvernement fédéral américain, confronté à la menace communiste, a tout mis en oeuvre pour s’assurer la préeminence scientifique et technologique des USA. Vue à travers cette rivalité avec l’Union Soviétique, la quête incessante de l’Amérique pour l’innovation était un moyen de s’assurer une longueur d’avance sur son rival. Mais cette avance était aussi une arme politique pour consolider des alliances : la collaboration fut aussi importante — sinon plus — que la concurrence. En effet la Guerre Froide concerna autant la construction d’un ‘monde libre’ du point de vue economique, politique et militaire, que de mener une grande guerre d’usure avec les Soviétiques. Cette conférence décrit comment les USA ont utilisé leurs avantages scientifiques et technologiques pour intégrer leur partenaires Européens dans le ‘monde libre’ sans perturber l’équilibre de puissance mondial, et sans ébranler ses ambitions hégémonique."

"America emerged from WWII as the most important scientific and technological power on the globe. As the cold war took shape the federal government, challenged by the communist threat, embarked on a major effort to secure U.S. scientific and technological preeminence. Seen through the bipolar lens of Cold War rivalry with Moscow, America’s ceaseless quest for innovation was simply meant to ensure that it was always ahead of its rival. But leadership could also be used as a political weapon to consolidate alliances : here collaboration mattered as much as, if not more than competition. Indeed the Cold War was as much about creating an economically, politically, and militarily integrated ‘free world’ as it was about waging a war of attrition with the Soviets. This talk describes how the U.S. levered its scientific and technological assets to integrate its European partners into the ‘free world’ without upsetting the global balance of power or undermining its hegemonic ambitions."

compte rendu


Conférence #10 - par John Krige

lundi 24 mars 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS

"Conflits États-Unis - Europe autour d’un système global de telecommunications par satellite" (US-European conflicts over a global satellite telecommunications system)

JPEG - 6.4 ko

présentation par M. Krige :

"En 1961 le Président Kennedy n’a pas seulement promis que les USA mettraient un homme sur la lune avant la fin de la décennie. Il a aussi engagé l’Amérique à construire un système global et unique de telecommunications par satellite, dominé par l’industrie domestique et géré par un opérateur américain. Tous les efforts européens pous s’assurer une niche pour ces satellites régionaux ont été déjoués par Washington. L’Histoire se rèpète aujourd’hui alors que les USA une fois de plus cherchent à s’approprier une position dominante avec leur système de navigation global (GPS) tandis que leur rival européen, Galileo, peine à avoir accès à un marché lucratif et à améliorer sa capacité de défense autonome. Aujourd’hui, comme au temps de la Guerre Froide, la suprématie technologique de l’Amérique, et son énorme investissement dans les systèmes militaires avancés donnent aux USA les moyens d’une puissance mondiale et contraignent la capacité de l’Europe à façonner son proper avenir."

"In 1961 President Kennedy did not simply promise that the US would put a man on the moon before the decade was out. He also committed the US to constructing a single global system of telecommunications by satellite dominated by American industry and managed by an American operator. European efforts to secure a niche for regional satellites were strongly opposed in Washington. History is repeating itself today as the US once again seeks to secure a dominant position with its global positioning system (GPS) while Europe’s rival Galileo struggles to gain access to a lucrative market and to assist autonomous defense capabilities. Now, as in the cold war, America’s technological supremacy, and its huge investment in advanced military systems again provide the US with instruments of global power and restrict the capacity of Europe to shape its own future."

compte rendu


Conférence #11 - par Béatrice Heuser

lundi 31 mars 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"Military victory as strategic success ?"

PNG - 54.2 ko

présentation par Mme Heuser :

"It is only natural that generals through the ages should have sought military victory on the battlefield. Unusually, however, in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the “quest for [military] victory” (Brian Bond) was decoupled from the pursuit of greater political aims. Earlier writings were deeply linked up with concerns about the legitimacy of warfare, ius in bello and ius ad bellum, which set limits to legitimate war aims, even if de facto ambitions might exceed them.
It is only in the rediscovery of earlier thinking that can be traced back to Antiquity that strategists, led by B.H.Liddell Hart, returned to the pursuit of political aims of warfare and their elevation above that of a military victory for its own sake."

compte rendu


Conférence #12 - par sir Lawrence Freedman

lundi 7 avril 2014
18h-20h

Salle 1
esc. M, 1er étage gauche
12 place du Panthéon
75005 PARIS
"The Future of War"

JPEG - 23.8 ko
JPEG - 47.4 ko

présentation par M. Freedman :

"This lecture will consider past efforts to discern the future of war, and how predictions often had a clear political agenda, to encourage military efforts that would make it less likely that these predictions would come true. In recent years the big issue has been one of whether the “old” wars between great powers, involving all social and economic resources, are being replaced, at least for these powers, by more discretionary “new” wars, triggered not so much by the rise of strong states but the fractures of weak states. This lecture will argue that there is nothing new in forms of warfare involving civil wars, militias and terrorists, and that the big question for the future is whether there will be clashes between great powers. This cannot be ruled out, although it is more likely in the Asia-Pacific region than Europe."

compte rendu


Version imprimable de cet article Version imprimable
à noter

Les Actes du colloque de la chaire, Grands enjeux stratégiques en Asie, du 02 avril 2015, ont été publiés dans le numéro de juin de la Revue Défense Nationale.

Contact